CUNICULTURE a Website in French

The access to this Website is free
The Website is devoted to rabbit in general, mainly to rabbit's biology, breeding and uses

Short French => English

The objective of this short lexicon list is to help non-French speaking Internet users, who are functional in technical English, make maximum use of the contents of this Website. It can be also used by French speaking people to translate their text into English.

pdf version of this Lexicon (6 pages)

Initial remarks: Very frequently, technical words used in French and in English are quite identical. In such cases, a translation is proposed mainly for those words that may either create confusion or that may correspond in a sense but is slightly different between French and English. Thanks to Steven D. Lukefahr (A&M University, Texas USA) for the control of the English quality

Last updating : 4 April 2012

Lapin = rabbit Note: for French people "lapin/rabbit" corresponds exclusively to Oryctolagus cuniculus. On the contrary, the English word "rabbit" may be used for a lot of species of the Leporidae family of different genuses, such as Oryctolagus, Sylvilagus, and sometimes Lepus, etc… but frequently there is confusion between hares and rabbits.  In zoological classification, rabbits are distinguished by the helplessness of their offspring. Young rabbits are born naked with their eyes closed. On the contrary, young hares are born with a complete fur coat and open eyes, but are soon independent from mother care. In this Website, "lapin" corresponds exclusively to the European rabbit Oryclolagus cuniculus. Rabbits of the genus "Sylvilagus" are named "lapins américains" (cottontail rabbit = lapin à queue de cotton, ….) or with their Latin name.
Lapin de garenne, lapin sauvage = wild rabbit
Lapin domestique, lapin de clapier, lapin de chou = domestic rabbit
Cuniculture = rabbit breeding, rabbit rearing, rabbit husbandry
Cunicole = related with rabbit production

Abattage = slaughter
Abattoir = slaughterhouse, abattoir
Abreuvoir (automatique) = (automatic) drinker
Abreuvoir à tétine = nipple drinker
Accouplement = mating
Aliment = food, feed
Aliment composé = compound feed
Aliment granulé = pelleted feed
Allaitante (lapine allaitante) = nursing doe
Allaitement = nursing (act of the mother)
Amidon = starch (polymer of alpha 1-4 glucose chains connected with alpha 1-6 bonds)
Angora = Angora, long hair rabbit
Animalier, Animalière =  person working in a rabbitry, most generally different of the owner which may also work in his own rabbitry.
Anticorps = antibody
Antigène = antigen
Appareil digestif = digestive tract, gut
Appétibilité = palatability
Arbre = tree
Arbre généalogique = pedigree
Argenté de Champagne (race)= Champagne d'Argent (breed)
Avoine = oat = Avena sativa
Avortement = abortion
Azote = nitrogen
Azote non protéique = non-protein nitrogen


Besoin (alimentaire, …) = requirement, need
Besoin d'entretien = maintenance requirement
Bio or Biologique (production, …) = organic (production)
Biologie = biology
Blé = wheat , UK corn = Triticum
Blé dur = hard wheat (used by man to make semolina and pasta) = Triticum durum
Blé tendre = soft wheat or common wheat (used by man to make bread, …) = Triticum sativum = Triticum aestivum = Triticum vulgare
Boîte à nid = nest box
Broyage = grinding
Broyeur = grinder, crusher

Caecotrophes (crottes molles) = caecoptopes (soft feces)
Caecotrophie = caecoptrophy (production of 2 types of feces, hard and soft, and systematic ingestion of the soft ones – the practice of caecotrophy is common to all members of the Lagomopha order)
Coprophagie = coprophagy (feces eating; for an animal, consumption of its own unique type of feces)
Cage = cage
Cage collective = cage used to house a group of rabbits
Cage de maternité = doe's cage (cage equipped with a nest box) for kindling and suckling period
Cage d'engraissement = cage used for young rabbits after weaning during the fattening period
Cage grillagée = wire mesh cage
Cage individuelle = cage for a single rabbit
Cage-boite-à-nid = see cage-mère
Cage-mère = "mother cage": economical unit created for the estimation of the investment made in a rabbitry. For a rabbitry of 100 "mother cages", it corresponds to 100 cages fully equipped for reproduction (with nest boxes) + the corresponding cages necessary for fattening after weaning the young produced in the 100 "mother cages" (about 800 places (e.g. 100 cages of 8 young or 160 cages of 5 young)) + about 50 cages for empty does and young does prepared for replacement + 12-14 cages for males if natural mating is used.
Caillebotis = slatted floor. May be made of wood, plastic or metal
Californien = Californian
Caractère = character, trait
Carcasse = carcass
Carence = deficiency
Castor = beaver (NB : huile de ricin = castor oil)
Cellule = cell
Cellulose = cellulose (polymer of beta 1-4 glucose)
Cellulose brute = crude fibre (chemically determined according to the old Weende method)
Cellulose VS or cellulose Van Soest = fibrous part of the cell wall calculated by difference between ADF and ADL
Céréale = cereal, grain (most common cereals are wheat, barley, oat, maize, sorghum, rice, rye, …)
Clapier = traditional rabbit single hutch or cage (made of wood, concrete, …but the term is not used for modern wire mesh cages), group of hutches or cages (traditional or modern cages), or rabbitry
Cobaye = guinea pig
Cochon d'Inde = guinea pig
Colza = rape, colza,  rapseed = Brassica napus oleifera
Colza 00 (or colza double zero) = known in America as Cambra (for Canadian brassica), rape with very low level in glucosinoltes and erucic acid
Comportement = behaviour
Comportement d'oestrus = copulatory behaviour
Composant = component, ingredient
Congélation = freezing
Congélation à très basse température = deep-freezing
Consanguinité = inbreeding; consaguinity
Conservation = storage, conservation
Consommation [alimentaire]= [feed] consumption, feed intake
Copeaux (de bois) = (wood) shavings
Coprah (amande de la noix de coco Coco nucifera) = copra (dried kernel of the coconut Coco nucifera)
Corps jaune = corpus luteum (pl. corpora lutea)
Croisé = crossbred
Croisement = crossbreeding
Croissance = growth, development
Crottes (en général) = droppings (in general)
Crottes dures = hard feces
Crottes molles = soft feces, caecoptopes
Cultivar = cultivar, a variety or line of a plant that has been selected intentionally and maintained through cultivation
Cunicole = related with rabbit production
Cuniculture = rabbit breeding, rabbit rearing, rabbit husbandry. Note: Cuniculiculture is also accepted in French, but Cuniculture is more frequently used. The meaning is exactly the same.

Décongélation = thawing
Déglutition = swallowing
Denrée (alimentaire) = foodstuff
Dépense = expenditure, loss, consumption
Dépilation = plucking (of rabbit hair)
Dépouiller = to skin
Descendance= progeny; offspring (the plural of offspring is still offspring)
Déséquilibre = imbalance
Déshydratation = dehydration
Diagnostic de gestation = pregnancy diagnosis (most frequently made through abdominal palpation)
Disponibilité = availability
Dominant (animal dominant) = dominant animal, alpha animal
Dominant (gène) = dominant (gene)
Donnée = fact, datum (pl. data)
Drèches (d'orge) = (barley) brewer's grain
Durée = length, duration
Durée d'éclairement = daylight ratio
Duvet (or sous-poil) = down

Eau = water
Eau d'adduction (du robinet) = tap water
Eau de source / de puit = spring water/well water
Eau douce /de mer= fresh water /seawater
Échantillon = sample
Éclairement = lighting (phase d'éclairement = light phase)
Éjaculat = ejaculate, semen
Électronarcose = electrical stunning, electronarcosis
Élevage = husbandry, breeding, rearing
Éleveur (de lapins) = rabbit breeder, rabbit producer
Énergie brute /digestible / métabolisable = gross energy/digestible energy/metabolisable energy
Engraissement (période d'eng.) = fattening (fattening period)
Engraisseur = a rabbit producer buying his rabbit at weaning, and raising them until slaughter weight
Entretien = maintenance
Épilation (des lapins Angora) = (Angora) wool plucking
Épiphyse (or glande pinéale) = pineal gland, epihysis
Escourgeon (orge d'hiver) = winter barley
Espace = space
Espèce = species
Estomac = stomach
Expérience = experiment, test, trial
Extractif non azoté (ENA) = nitrogen-free extract (NFE)
Extrait ethéré (EE) = ether extract, frequently confused with fat or lipid content

Facteur = factor
Faible = slight, small, low, weak
Farine basse de blé = middlings
Farine grossière /fine = meal/flour
Faune = fauna
Fauve de Bourgogne = Burgundy Fawn
Fèces dures/molles [caecotrophes] = hard feces/soft feces [caecotropes]
Fécondation = ferilization, fecundation
Fécondité (taux de féc.)= fecundity (reproduction rate)
Femelle = female , (rabbit) doe
Femelle parentale = crossbred rabbit doe (between 2 selected lines) as the mother of the rabbits produced for slaughter
Ferme = farm
Féverole = field bean,, horse bean = Vicia faba
Flatdeck (cages en …) = flatdeck battery, cages on a single level
Flore digestive = digestive flora
Foie = liver
Foin = hay
Foin de graminées = grass hay
Forage = drilling , sinking
Format = size (race de grand format = large size breed)
Fosse = pit (fosse à lisier / à purin = slurry pit)
Fosse à déjections (sous les cages) = droppings or manure pit (under the cages)
Fourrage = forage, fodder, roughage
Fumier = manure, solid manure

Gain = gain
Gain de poids [moyen] quotidien (GMQ) = [average] daily gains of body weight (ADG)
Garenne = warren, open or closed area where rabbits live freely (lapin de garenne = wild rabbit)
Germe (de blé, de maïs, …) = (wheat, maize, …) germ
Gestante = pregnant
Gestation  = pregnancy, gestation
Glucide = carbohydrate
GMQ = see gain de poids
Grain  = grain (in French used for cereals), bean (for coffee,…) seed (for mustard, …)
Graine = seed
Graine oléagineuse (colza, soja, tournesol, chanvre, lin, …) = oil seed (rapeseed, soybean, sunflower, hempseed, linseed,…)
Graine protéagineuse (pois, lupin, haricot, féverole, pois chiche, …) = proteaginous seed (peas, lupins, beans, horse beans, chickpeas, …)
Graines de colza/soja/sunflower entières = full fat rapeseed /soya beans/sunflower seeds
Graisse = fat
Granulé = pellet
Gras = fatty, fat tissue
Grillage = wire mesh
GTE (Gestion Technico-Économique) = technico-economic management, production control. Organized method of registration of production data of a rabbitry + some economic parameters


Hase = hare doe
Hémicellulose = hemicellulose (hémicellulose VS = hemicellulose calculated as difference between NDF and ADF, chemically determined by the Van Soest method)
Homogène = homogeneous
Huile = oil

Iléon = ileum
Immature = immature (follicule immature = non-ovulatory follicle)
Immunité = immunity
Indice consummation (IC) = feed conversion ratio/ Note: quantity of feeds consumed/total body weight gains obtained with this quantity of feed)
Indice de consommation d'élevage = rabbitry feed conversion ratio/ Note: ratio between the total weight of feed utilized in a rabbitry (mothers + fatteners + replacements) generally during one year, and total weight of live rabbits sent to the slaughterhouse during the corresponding period
Infécondité = sterility
Infertilité = infertility, relative sterility
Informatique = computer, computer science, data processing
Informatiser = to computerize
Ingestion = ingestion, feed intake
INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique) = INRA (National Institute for Agronomic Research)/ Note: The French state institute INRA, with 4300 full-time researchers and engineers + 1800 PhD students + 4100 technicians, is responsible for research on all aspects of agriculture, agricultural products, and quality & utilization and agricultural impact on environment. A small part of its activity is devoted to rabbit biology and production.
Insémination = insemination
Insémination artificielle (IA) = artificial insemination (AI)
Intestin = intestine (intestine grêle = small intestine ; gros intestin [cæcum + côlon] = large intestine [caecum + colon])
Issues (de blé) = (wheat) offal, (middling)
ITAVI (Institut Technique de l'Aviculture) = ITAVI/ Note: ITAVI is the French applied research and development institute in charge of aviculture (65% of the total activity), rabbit production (13% of the total activity), small animal breeding and animal welfare of production. It works mainly with public funds to provide breeders, and all industry sectors, with reference materials, scientific, technical and economic information, and expertise enabling improved production sustainability (altogether about 30 engineers and technicians).
Jarre = over hair, guard hair
Jéjunum = jejunum
Jeun (à jeun) = fasting
Jeûne = fast, fasting
Jeune = young (jeune lapin, lapereau = kit)
Journalier = daily

Lactation = lactation, suckling period
Lait = milk
Lapereau = kit, young rabbit
Lapin = rabbit (see definition and use of "rabbit" at the beginning of this lexicon list)
Lapin de boucherie = meat rabbit
Lapin de chair = meat rabbit
Lapin mâle = buck
Lapine = (rabbit) doe
Lapinière = rabbitry, group of rabbit cages or hutches constituting a rabbitry
Lard = bacon
Levraut = young hare, leveret
Lièvre = hare (lièvre commun = brown hare = Lepus europaeus)
Lignée =line, lineage, strain
Lignine = lignin (ADL = acid detergent lignin, determined chemically by the Van Soest method)
Lin (graine de …, huile de …) = linseed, linseed oil = Linum usitatissimum
Lipide = lipid, fat
Lisier = liquid manure
Lisier = liquid manure
Litière (de paille, de copeaux) = (straw, wood shawings) bedding
Logiciel = (computer) software
Lupin = lupin = Lupinus spp
Luzerne = lucerne, alfalfa = Medicago sativa
Lyophilisation = freeze-drying, lyopholisation

Maïs  = UK maize or US corn = Zea mays
Maladie = disease
Mamelle = mammary gland, teats
Manchons = front- and hind-legs with the skin parts remaining after removing  the raw skin during the slaughter process. For 30 years, the "manchons" must be removed from the carcasses for all rabbit carcasses commercialized in France.
Mangeoire = feeder
Manioc = cassava = Manihot utilissima = Manihot esculenta
Marge sur coût alimentaire (MCA) = financial margin above the cost of rabbit feeds, Margin above Cost of Alimentation (MCA). Note: the MCA corresponds, on a yearly basis, to the difference between: 1) the value of young and culled adults sold to slaughterhouse + value of rabbits consumed by the rabbit breeder's family + value of young rabbits kept in the rabbitry as replacements and 2) the value of all feeds used, supplementations excluded. This difference is then divided by the yearly average number of breeding does => MCA/female/year, or divided by the total number of AI practiced during the year => MCA/AI, or divided by the weight of all ready to slaughter rabbits produced during the year => MCA/kg live weight produced.
Maternel = maternal
Matière = matter, material
Matière organique (MO) = organic matter
Matière sèche (MS) = dry matter (DM)
Matières azotées or matière azotée totales (MAT) = crude protein (= N x 6.25)
Matières cellulosiques (= cellulose brute) = crude fibre
Matières grasses (MG) = fat, frequently confused with ether extract (EE)
Médicament = medicine, drug
Mélasse (de betterave, de canne) = (sugar beet, sugar cane) molasses
Mère = mother, dam
Mise bas (MB) = parturition, kindling
Mortalité (taux de …) = mortality (mortality rate)
Mortality perinatale = natimortality , kits mortality immediately before and after birth, perinatal mortality
Mortinatalité = stillborn rate
Mort-né = stillborn
Multipare = multiparous (name of a doe which has given birth 2 or more times)

Naissance = birth
Naisseur = meat rabbit producer selling his rabbits at weaning
Naisseur-engraisseur = meat rabbit producer which controls all production phases, from conception to slaughter weight. In France, more than 98% of rabbit producers are "naisseur-engraisseurs".
Nid = nest
Nidation = implantation, (in the rabbit: about 7 days after fertilization of eggs by sperm)
Nouveau-né = newborn
Nullipare = nulliparous (a virgin doe or doe before the first kindling)
Numéro de portée = parity number
Nutriment = nutrient
Nycthemère = light/dark cycle, nycterohemeral cycle
NZB (Néo Zélandais Blanc) = New Zealand White (NZW)

Oléagineux = oilseeds
Ordinateur = computer
Orge = barley = Hordeum spp.(Note: for animal nutrition there is no difference is made between the different types of barley, even though the crude fibre level of winter barley is frequently slightly higher than that of spring barley )
Orge à 4 rangs = four-row barley = Hordeum vulgare
Orge à 6 rangs = six-row barley = Hordeum hexasticum = Hordeum polystichum
Orge à deux rangs = two-row barley = Hordeum distichum
Orge de printemps = spring barley
Orge d'hiver (= escourgeon) = winter barley
Os = bone
Ovaire =ovary
Ovulation = ovulation
Ovulation induite = reflex ovulation

Paille = straw
Paillette (pour insémination artificielle) = straw (for artificial insemination)
Palmiste (graine du fruit du palmier à huile Elaeis guineensis) = palm kernel (seed of the fruit of the palm tree, Elaeis guineensis)
Parc = pen
Parturition = parturition, kindling
Pâtée = mash, wet feed
Paternel = paternal
Pâturage = pasture
Peau = skin
Peau apprêtée = fur
Pépin de raisin = grape pits
Père = father, sire
Petit (lapin) = kit, suckling rabbit
Pinéal (glande pinéale, epiphyse) = pineal (gland), epiphysis
Poids = weight
Poids à la naissance = birth weight
Poids au sevrage = weaning weight
Poids corporel = body weight
Poids de portée = litter weight
Poids frais = fresh weight
Poids sec = dry weight
Poids vif = live weight
Poil = hair
Poil Angora = Angora wool
Poil de duvet = down
Poil de garde (jarre) = over hair, guard hair
Pois (fourrager) = (field) pea = Pisum sativum
Pois chiche = chickpea = Cicer arietinum
Pois protéagineux = field peas of different cultivars selected for protein production = Pisum sativum
Poison = poison
Poisson = fish
Pomme = apple
Pomme de terre = potato = Solanum tuberosum
Portée = litter
Primipare = primparous, a doe which has given birth only once
Prolificité = prolificacy
Protéine = protein
Protéines alimentaires = dietary protein
Proteines brutes = crude protein (= N x 6.25)
Provende = fodder
Pseudogestation = pseudopregnancy, pseudogestation
Pulpe de betterave/d'agrume = beetpulp/citrus pulp
Pylore = pylorus

Quarantaine = quarantine
Quotidien = daily, every day

Race = breed
Race à viande = meat breed
Radicelles d'orge = barley rootlets
Ration = ration
Ration d'entretien = maintenance ration
Rationnement = feed restriction
Récessif = recessive
Receveur, receveuse = recipient
Récolte = harvest
Réforme = culling
Régime = diet, regimen
Régime de base = basal diet, control diet
Rein = kidney
Remoulage bis = red shorts
Remoulage blanc = white shorts
RENACEB = pooling of data of all French technico-economical systems (GTE) of rabbitries performance registrations, applied to rabbitries with a batch reproduction (and quite exclusively AI) – About 1100-1200 breeding units are included in each yearly analysis
RENALAP = pooling of data of all French technico-economical systems (GTE) of rabbitries performance registrations, applied to rabbitries with individual reproduction rhythms (usually with all natural matings). Well less than one hundred rabbitries remain in this historically first national registration system.
Rendement à l'abattage = slaughter rate, dressing percentage, slaughter yield
Reproducteur = breeding animal (male or female)
Reproduction = reproduction, breeding
Ressuyage (perte au ….) = carcass shrink, shrinkage
Riz = rice = Oryza sativa

Saillie naturelle/forcée = natural/forced mating
Saindoux = lard (pure pork fat)
Sang = blood
Sauvage = wild
Sciure de bois = sawdust
Seigle = rye = Secale cereale
Sélectionneur = rabbit breeder selecting breeds or lines to genetically improve different characters
Semence = semen
Seringue = syringe
Sevrage = weaning
Sexe = sex
Soja = soybean = Glycine max
Son (acoustique) = sound (acoustics)
Son (de blé/de maïs,…) = wheat/maize bran
Sorgho = sorghum = Sorghum bicolor
Souche = strain, line
Sous-cutané = subcutaneous
Sous-poil (duvet) = down
Sous-produit = by-product
SPACE = French international trade fair for animal production, held every year in Rennes (Brittany) during the first half of September
Spermatozoïde (s) = spermatozoon (pl. spermatozoa)
Sperme = semen
Squelette = skeleton
Stérilité = sterility
Suif = (beef) tallow
Survie (taux de ...) = survival (rate)

Taille de portée = litter size
Taux = rate, proportion, level
Témoin = control
Temps = stage
Temps = time
Temps = weather
Teneur = content, level, amount, rate
Test = test
Testicule = testis (pl. testes) , testicle
Tétée = suckling (act of the young)
Tétine = teat
Thym = thyme = Thymus vulgaris
Thymus (glande) = thymus (gland)
Tissu = tissue
Toison = fleece
Tonte = shearing
Tournesol (tourteau de …) = sunflower (meal) = Helianthus annuus
Tourteau = meal, cake ( t. de soja = soyban meal; t. de tournesol = sunflower meal; t. oléagineux = oil cake)
Tout plein tout vide = all in all out/ Note: in rabbit production, this system needs 2 buildings (rooms) with exactly the same number of cages to be able to be used alternatively as reproduction cages (with a nest box compartment) and as fattening cages. At weaning, the young rabbits stay in the cage where they were born until slaughter time. After departure of all fattened rabbits on the same day, the building, cages and materials are all cleaned and disinfected (8-10 days) and then receive the breeding does from the other building at the time of weaning of the kits born in the other building (i.e. 4-6 days before the next kindling). All does are inseminated 11-12 days after kindling. The total cycle length is 84 days. Each building is cleaned and disinfected every 84 days.
Trèfle = clover
Trèfle blanc = white clover = Trifolium repens
Trèfle d'Alexandrie = berseem = Trifolium alexandrimun
Trèfle rouge = cow grass = Trifolium pratense
Triticale = triticale = Triticum x Secale

Unité = unit
Urée = urea
Vaccin = vaccine
Vagin = vagina
Vétérinaire = veterinary, veterinarian
Viabilité = viability
Viande = meat
Vie = life
Viscères = viscera
Vitesse = speed , rate
Vrac (en vrac) = in bulk
Zone = area, region, zone
Zootechnie = animal production
Zootechnique = related with animal production or productivity